Electricity - Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER)


Overview

The Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER) of the European Union (Directive (EU) 2022/2557) strengthens the resilience of critical infrastructure to a range of threats, including natural hazards, terrorist attacks, insider threats, or sabotage. 11 sectors must comply with the new requirements: energy, transport, banking, financial market infrastructures, health, drinking water, wastewater, digital infrastructure, public administration, space and food.

Deadlines: By 17 October 2024, Member States shall adopt and publish the measures necessary to comply with this Directive. They shall immediately inform the Commission thereof.

They shall apply those measures from 18 October 2024.


Must the Electricity Subsector comply with the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER)?

According to Article 2 (Definitions) of the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER), ‘critical entity’ means a public or private entity which has been identified by a Member State as belonging to:

1. Energy.

a. Electricity.
— Electricity undertakings.
— Distribution system operators.
— Transmission system operators.
— Producers.
— Nominated electricity market operators.
— Market participants.


8 December 2022 - The Council approved the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER) and a recommendation which aim to reduce the vulnerabilities and strengthen the resilience of critical entities.

To respond to the recent acts of sabotage against the Nord Stream pipeline and the new risks brought by Russia’s aggression against Ukraine, the recommendation adopted focuses on strengthening the resilience of critical infrastructure.

This recommendation aims to accelerate the preparatory work for the implementation of the objectives set out in the critical entities and NIS 2 directives and step up the EU’s capacity to protect its critical infrastructure. It includes series of targeted actions covering key sectors such as energy, digital infrastructure, transport and space.

The recommendation covers three priority areas: preparedness, response and international cooperation. It invites member states to update their risk assessments to reflect current threats and encourages them to conduct stress tests of entities operating critical infrastructure, with the energy sector as a priority.

It also calls on member states to develop, in cooperation with the Commission, a blueprint for a coordinated response to disruptions of critical infrastructure with significant cross-border relevance. The EU will support partner countries in enhancing their resilience and strengthen cooperation with NATO in this area.


According to Article 1 (Subject matter and scope), the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER):

(a) lays down obligations on Member States to take specific measures aimed at ensuring that services which are essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions or economic activities are provided in an unobstructed manner in the internal market, in particular obligations to identify critical entities and to support critical entities in meeting the obligations imposed on them;

(b) lays down obligations for critical entities aimed at enhancing their resilience and ability to provide services in the internal market;

(c) establishes rules:
(i) on the supervision of critical entities;
(ii) on enforcement;
(iii) for the identification of critical entities of particular European significance and on advisory missions to assess the measures that such entities have put in place to meet their obligations under Chapter III;

(d) establishes common procedures for cooperation and reporting on the application of this Directive;

(e) lays down measures with a view to achieving a high level of resilience of critical entities in order to ensure the provision of essential services within the Union and to improve the functioning of the internal market.



CER Directive Training for the Energy Sector, Electricity Subsector

1. Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER), Instructor-led Training

Delivery format of the training program

a. In-House Instructor-Led Training program - designed and tailored for persons working for a specific company or organization (Board members, executive management, risk managers and employees etc.). In all In-House Instructor-Led Training programs an instructor from Cyber Risk GmbH that is approved by the Client travels to the location chosen by the Client and leads the class according to the needs of the Client and the Contract.

b. Online Live Training program - synchronous (real time, not pre-recorded) training program that takes place in a live virtual meeting room using platforms like Zoom, Webex, Microsoft Teams etc. In all Online Live Training programs, instructors from Cyber Risk GmbH that are approved by the Client tailor the method of delivery (interactive, non-interactive, etc.) to the needs of the Client, lead the virtual class, and answer questions according to the needs of the Client and the Contract.

c. Video-Recorded Training program - professional, pre-recorded training program. Instructors from Cyber Risk GmbH that are approved by the Client tailor the training content according to the needs of the Client and the Contract, and they record the training content in a professional studio. The training material (including any subsequent updates) is licensed by Cyber Risk GmbH to the Client for training purposes. Clients can incorporate the recorded videos to their internal learning system. Video-Recorded Training programs include Orientation Video Training and Compliance Video Training programs.

Course Synopsis

- Are you sure we must comply with the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER)? Where can we find this information?
- Subject matter and scope.
- Understanding the important definitions.
- What is ‘critical infrastructure’ and ‘essential service’?

The obligation for each EU Member State to adopt a strategy for enhancing the resilience of critical entities.
- The strategic objectives and policy measures.
- Risk assessment by Member States.

Criteria for the identification of critical entities.
- the entity provides one or more essential services,
- the entity operates, and its critical infrastructure is located, on the territory of a Member State,
- an incident would have significant disruptive effects on the provision by the entity of one or more essential services.

Criteria for the identification of significant disruptive effects.
- the number of users relying on the essential service provided by the entity concerned,
- the extent to which other sectors and subsectors depend on the essential service in question,
- the impact that incidents could have, in terms of degree and duration, on economic and societal activities, the environment, public safety and security, or the health of the population,
- the entity’s market share in the market for the essential service or essential services concerned,
- the geographic area that could be affected by an incident, including any cross-border impact, taking into account the vulnerability associated with the degree of isolation of certain types of geographic areas, such as insular regions, remote regions or mountainous areas,
- the importance of the entity in maintaining a sufficient level of the essential service, taking into account the availability of alternative means for the provision of that essential service.

Competent authorities and single point of contact.

Cooperation between Member States.

Risk assessment by critical entities, within nine months of receiving the notification.
- Risk assessment by critical entities whenever necessary subsequently, and at least every four years, to assess all relevant risks that could disrupt the provision of their essential services (‘critical entity risk assessment’).
- Risk assessment for all the natural and man-made risks which could lead to an incident, including those of a cross-sectoral or cross-border nature, accidents, natural disasters, public health emergencies, hybrid threats and other antagonistic threats, including terrorist offences.
- Resilience measures of critical entities.

Background checks on persons who:
- hold sensitive roles in or for the benefit of the critical entity, in particular in relation to the resilience of the critical entity,
- are authorised to directly or remotely access its premises, information or control systems, including in connection with the security of the critical entity,
- are under consideration for recruitment to sensitive positions.

Incident notification.
- initial notification no later than 24 hours after becoming aware of an incident,
- detailed report no later than one month thereafter.

The new Critical Entities Resilience Group.
- it supports the Commission and facilitates cooperation among Member States,
- it supports the exchange of information on issues relating to this Directive,
- it is analysing the strategies in order to identify best practices,
- it is composed of representatives of the Member States and the Commission who hold security clearance, where necessary.

Supervision and enforcement.
- on-site inspections of the critical infrastructure and the premises that the critical entity uses to provide its essential services,
- off-site supervision of measures taken by critical entities,
- audits in respect of critical entities.
- penalties.

- Other new EU directives and regulations that introduce compliance challenges.

- Closing remarks.


Target Audience, Duration

We offer a 60-minute overview for the Board of Directors and senior management of EU and non-EU entities, tailored to their needs. We also offer 4 hours training for risk and compliance teams, responsible for the implementation of the EU directives and regulations. We always tailor the program to the needs of the client.


Instructor

Our instructors are working professionals that have the necessary knowledge and experience in the fields in which they teach. They can lead full-time, part-time, and short-form programs that are tailored to your needs. You will always know up front who the instructor of the training program will be.

George Lekatis, General Manager of Cyber Risk GmbH, can also lead these training sessions. His background and some testimonials: https://www.cyber-risk-gmbh.com/George_Lekatis_Testimonials.pdf


Terms and conditions.

You may visit: https://www.cyber-risk-gmbh.com/Terms.html



2. Critical Entities Resilience Directive Trained Professional (CERDTPro) - online training, exam, certificate of completion.


Overview

With which Directive do we have to comply? The Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER), the NIS 2 Directive, or another legal act?

The NIS 2 Directive (2022/2555) addresses cybersecurity challenges. Cybersecurity is addressed sufficiently in the NIS 2 Directive, so the matters covered by the NIS 2 Directive are excluded from the scope of the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER). To make it as clear as possible, for cybersecurity challenges the NIS 2 Directive applies, given that the requirements laid down in the NIS 2 Directive are at least equivalent to the corresponding obligations laid down in the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER).

Where provisions of sector-specific Union legal acts require critical entities to take measures to enhance their resilience, and where those requirements are recognised by Member States as at least equivalent to the corresponding obligations laid down in the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER), the relevant provisions of the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER) should not apply. The relevant provisions of sector-specific legal acts should apply.

What about challenges that affect both, the physical security and cybersecurity of critical entities? NIS 2 and CER will both be implemented in a coordinated manner, according to article 1.2 of the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER).

CER covers a wide range or risks, not just cybersecurity risks. According to Article 13 of CER, (Resilience measures of critical entities), critical entities must take technical, security and organisational measures to ensure their resilience, including measures necessary to:

(a) prevent incidents from occurring, duly considering disaster risk reduction and climate adaptation measures;

(b) ensure adequate physical protection of their premises and critical infrastructure, duly considering, for example, fencing, barriers, perimeter monitoring tools and routines, detection equipment and access controls;

(c) respond to, resist and mitigate the consequences of incidents, duly considering the implementation of risk and crisis management procedures and protocols and alert routines;

(d) recover from incidents, duly considering business continuity measures and the identification of alternative supply chains, in order to resume the provision of the essential service;

(e) ensure adequate employee security management, duly considering measures such as setting out categories of personnel who exercise critical functions, establishing access rights to premises, critical infrastructure and sensitive information, setting up procedures for background checks in accordance with Article 14 and designating the categories of persons who are required to undergo such background checks, and laying down appropriate training requirements and qualifications;

(f) raise awareness about the measures referred to in points (a) to (e) among relevant personnel, duly considering training courses, information materials and exercises.


Objectives

The program has been designed to provide with the skills needed to understand and support compliance with the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER).

It also provides with the skills needed to pass the Critical Entities Resilience Directive Trained Professional (CERDTPro) exam, and to receive the Certificate of Completion, that provides independent evidence to firms and organizations that you have a quantifiable understanding of the subject matter.


Target Audience

The program is beneficial to risk and compliance managers and professionals, auditors, consultants, suppliers and service providers that work for companies and organizations that have to comply with the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER).


Who must comply with the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER)?

According to Article 2 (Definitions) of the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER), ‘critical entity’ means a public or private entity which has been identified by a Member State as belonging to one of the categories:

1. Energy.

a. Electricity.
— Electricity undertakings.
— Distribution system operators.
— Transmission system operators.
— Producers.
— Nominated electricity market operators.
— Market participants.

b. District heating and cooling.
— Operators of district heating or district cooling.

c. Oil.
— Operators of oil transmission pipelines.
— Operators of oil production, refining and treatment facilities, storage and transmission.
— Central stockholding entities.

d. Gas.
— Supply undertakings.
— Distribution system operators.
— Transmission system operators.
— Storage system operators.
— LNG system operators.
— Natural gas undertakings.
— Operators of natural gas refining and treatment facilities.

e. Hydrogen.
— Operators of hydrogen production, storage and transmission.


2. Transport.

a. Air.
— Air carriers used for commercial purposes.
— Airport managing bodies, airports, including the core airports and entities operating ancillary installations contained within airports.
— Traffic management control operators providing air traffic control (ATC) services.

b. Rail.
— Infrastructure managers.
— Railway undertakings, including operators of service facilities.

c. Water.
— Inland, sea and coastal passenger and freight water transport companies.
— Managing bodies of ports, including their port facilities, and entities operating works and equipment contained within ports.
— Operators of vessel traffic services (VTS).

d. Road.
— Road authorities responsible for traffic management control, excluding public entities for which traffic management or the operation of intelligent transport systems is a non-essential part of their general activity.
— Operators of Intelligent Transport Systems.


3. Banking.
— Credit institutions.


4. Financial market infrastructures.
— Operators of trading venues.
— Central counterparties (CCPs).


5. Health.
— Healthcare providers.
— EU reference laboratories.
— Entities carrying out research and development activities of medicinal products.
— Entities manufacturing basic pharmaceutical products and pharmaceutical preparations.
— Entities manufacturing medical devices considered to be critical during a public health emergency (public health emergency critical devices list).


6. Drinking water.
— Suppliers and distributors of water intended for human consumption, excluding distributors for which distribution of water for human consumption is a non-essential part of their general activity of distributing other commodities and goods.


7. Waste water.
— Undertakings collecting, disposing of or treating urban waste water, domestic waste water or industrial waste water, excluding undertakings for which collecting, disposing of or treating urban waste water, domestic waste water or industrial waste water is a non-essential part of their general activity.


8. Digital infrastructure.
— Internet Exchange Point providers.
— DNS service providers, excluding operators of root name servers.
— TLD name registries.
— Cloud computing service providers.
— Data centre service providers.
— Content delivery network providers.
— Trust service providers.
— Providers of public electronic communications networks.
— Providers of publicly available electronic communications services.


9. ICT service management (business-to-business).
— Managed service providers.
— Managed security service providers.


10. Public administration.
— Public administration entities of central governments as defined by a Member State in accordance with national law.
— Public administration entities at regional level as defined by a Member State in accordance with national law.


11. Space.
Operators of ground-based infrastructure, owned, managed and operated by Member States or by private parties, that support the provision of space-based services, excluding providers of public electronic communications networks.


Important note: This is an overview, not a detailed list of activities. Depending on their products or services, and where their products or services belong in NACE (the statistical classification of economic activities in the European Union), entities must carefully consider if they must comply with the Directive or not.


Course Synopsis


The European Union (EU) - key institutions, the EU legislative process, the roles.
- The European System of Financial Supervision.
- The major changes after the Lisbon Treaty.
- Delegated acts - supplementing or amending certain non-essential elements of a basic act.
- Implementing acts.
- Regulatory technical standards (RTS), Implementing technical standards (ITS).
- The Committee of European Auditing Oversight Bodies (CEAOB).
- The European External Action Service, Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP), Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), European Cyber Defence Policy Framework (CDPF).


Before the CER Directive.
- The European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection (‘EPCIP’) and the European Critical Infrastructures (‘ECIs’).
- The evaluation of Directive 2008/114/EC.


The Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER), important Articles.
- Before discussing Article 1 of the CER Directive.
- We must start with the Annex, and NACE Rev. 2.


- Subject matter and scope.
- Definitions.


- Strategy on the resilience of critical entities.
- Risk assessment by Member States.
- Identification of critical entities.
- Significant disruptive effect.
- Critical entities in the banking, financial market infrastructure and digital infrastructure sectors.
- Competent authorities and single point of contact.
- Member States’ support to critical entities.
- Cooperation between Member States.


- Risk assessment by critical entities.
- Resilience measures of critical entities.
- Background checks.
- Incident notification.


- Identification of critical entities of particular European significance.
- Advisory missions.


- Critical Entities Resilience Group.
- Commission support to competent authorities and critical entities.


- Supervision and enforcement.
- Penalties.


- Exercise of the delegation.
- Committee procedure.


- Reporting and review.


- Transposition.
- Repeal of Directive 2008/114/EC.
- Entry into force.


Understanding better the CER Directive.
- NIS 2 and the resilience of critical entities.
- Sector-specific Union legal acts and the resilience of critical entities.
- National security, defence, law and order, and the resilience of critical entities.
- Entities that are jointly established.
- Employees / contractors of critical entities.
- Requests for background checks.
- So many deadlines … Mark your calendar.
- Important national options and discretions.


Other new EU Directives and Regulations.
- 1. The European Cyber Resilience Act.
- 2. The NIS 2 Directive. - 3. The Digital Operational Resilience Act (DORA).
- 4. The Digital Services Act (DSA).
- 5. The Digital Markets Act (DMA). - 6. The European Health Data Space (EHDS).
- 7. The European Chips Act.
- 8. The European Data Act.
- 9. The European Data Governance Act (DGA).
- 10. The Artificial Intelligence Act.
- 11. The European ePrivacy Regulation.


- Closing remarks



Become a Critical Entities Resilience Directive Trained Professional (CERDTPro)

This is a Distance Learning with Certificate of Completion program, provided by Cyber Risk GmbH. The General Terms and Conditions for all legal transactions made through the Cyber Risk GmbH websites (hereinafter “GTC”) can be found at: https://www.cyber-risk-gmbh.com/Impressum.html

Each Distance Learning with Certificate of Completion program (hereinafter referred to as “distance learning program”) is provided at a fixed price, that includes VAT. There is no additional cost, now or in the future, for any reason.

We will send the distance learning program via email up to 24 hours after the payment (working days). Please remember to check the spam folder of your email client too, as emails with attachments are often landed in the spam folder.

You have the option to ask for a full refund up to 60 days after the payment. If you do not want one of our distance learning programs for any reason, all you must do is to send us an email, and we will refund the payment, no questions asked.

Your payment will be received by Cyber Risk GmbH (Dammstrasse 16, 8810 Horgen, Switzerland, Handelsregister des Kantons Zürich, Firmennummer: CHE-244.099.341). Cyber Risk GmbH will also send the certificates of completion to all persons that will pass the exam.

The all-inclusive cost is 297 USD (US Dollars).


First option: You can purchase the Critical Entities Resilience Directive Trained Professional (CERDTPro) program with VISA, MASTERCARD, AMEX, Apple Pay, Google Pay etc.

Purchase the CERDTPro program here (VISA, MASTERCARD, AMEX, Apple Pay, Google Pay etc.)





Second option: QR code payment.

i. Open the camera app or the QR app on your phone.

ii. Scan the QR code and possibly wait for a few seconds.

iii. Click on the link that appears, open your browser, and make the payment.


Third option: You can purchase the Critical Entities Resilience Directive Trained Professional (CERDTPro) program with PayPal

When you click "PayPal" below, you will be redirected to the PayPal web site. If you prefer to pay with a card, you can click "Debit or Credit Card" that is also powered by PayPal.



What is included in the cost of the distance learning program:


A. The official presentations (656 slides).

The presentations are effective and appropriate to study online or offline. Busy professionals have full control over their own learning and are able to study at their own speed. They are able to move faster through areas of the course they feel comfortable with, but slower through those that they need a little more time on.


B. Up to 3 online exam attempts per year.

Candidates must pass only one exam. If they fail, they must study the official presentations and retake the exam. Candidates are entitled to 3 exam attempts every year.

If candidates do not achieve a passing score on the exam the first time, they can retake the exam a second time.

If they do not achieve a passing score the second time, they can retake the exam a third time.

If candidates do not achieve a passing score the third time, they must wait at least one year before retaking the exam. There is no additional cost for additional exam attempts.

To learn more, you may visit:

https://www.critical-entities-resilience-directive.com/Distance_Learning_Programs_Exam_Certificate_of_Completion.pdf


C. The certificate of completion, with a scannable QR code for verification.

We will send it via email in Adobe Acrobat format (pdf). You will receive it up to 7 working days after you pass the exam.


Critical Entities Resilience Directive Trained Professional (CERDTPro)

D. Cyber Risk GmbH will develop a web page dedicated to each certified professional (https://www.cyber-risk-gmbh.com/Your_Name.htm).

When third parties scan the QR code on your certificate, they will visit this web page (https://www.cyber-risk-gmbh.com/Your_Name.htm), and they will be able to verify that you are a certified professional, and your certificates are valid and legitimate.

In this web page we will have your name, all the certificates you have received from us, and pictures of your certificates.

This is an example:

https://www.cyber-risk-gmbh.com/Monika_Meier.html

You can print your certificate that you will receive in Adobe Acrobat format (pdf). With the scannable QR code, all third parties can verify the authenticity of each certificate in a matter of seconds. Professional certificates are some of the most frequently falsified documents. Employers and third parties need an easy, effective, and efficient way to check the authenticity of each certificate. QR code verification is a good response to this demand.


E. If you purchase the CERDTPro program now, you can receive all the updated and amended CERDTPro programs at no cost until January 31, 2028.

Every time we have important developments that affect regulatory compliance with the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER), we will update and amend this training program, especially when we have important:

- Joint final draft technical standards, from the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) – the European Banking Authority (EBA), the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA), the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA).

- Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS),

- Implementing Technical Standards (ITS),

- Delegated Acts, that supplement or amend non‑essential parts of EU legislative acts, and

- Implementing Acts, that ensure that EU laws are applied uniformly.

The all-inclusive cost of your first program is $297. The all-inclusive cost of your second (and each additional) program is $197. It includes the exam, the certificate of completion, and all the updated and amended programs at no cost until January 31, 2028. You can take the exam and receive the certificate of completion only once. You cannot take the exam again, and it is not possible to receive a new certificate of completion every time you receive an updated and amended program at no cost.

If you want to take the exam again, to receive a certificate of completion having a later date on it, and to have both certificates of completion with different dates at your dedicated web page, you must purchase the updated program at a discounted cost ($197). This is not required, your original certificate will not expire.

In order to receive the updated and amended program (you have purchased the program in the past, and now you want to receive the updated and amended program at no cost), please follow the simple steps:

Please check the “Course synopsis” of the program at the registration page, to check if you have the latest version.

If we have updated the program, please send us an email with title: “Please send me the updated CERDTPro program.”

In the email, please let us know which was the name and email address of the person or legal entity that had initially purchased the program.

You will receive the updated program in less than 48 hours (working days). Please remember to check your spam folder too.



Frequently Asked Questions for the distance learning programs.


1. I want to know more about Cyber Risk GmbH.

Cyber Risk GmbH is a company incorporated in Switzerland.
Company number: CHE-244.099.341.
Cantonal Register of Commerce: Canton of Zürich.
Registered address: Dammstrasse 16, 8810 Horgen, Switzerland.
Swiss VAT number: CHE-244.099.341 MWST.
EU VAT number: EU276036462. Cyber Risk GmbH is registered for EU VAT purposes in Germany (Bundeszentralamt für Steuern, Verfahren One-Stop-Shop, Nicht EU-Regelung) for the sale of services in the EU. Cyber Risk GmbH declares and pays EU VAT in a single electronic quarterly return submitted to Germany, and the German Bundeszentralamt für Steuern forwards the EU VAT due to each member State of the EU.

The owner and general manager of Cyber Risk GmbH is George Lekatis, a well-known expert in risk management and compliance. George is also the general manager of Compliance LLC, incorporated in Wilmington, NC, and offices in Washington, DC. It is a provider of risk and compliance training and executive coaching in 57 countries.

Several business units of Compliance LLC are very successful associations that offer membership, weekly or monthly updates, training, certification, Authorized Certified Trainer (ACT) programs, and other services to their members.

The business units of Compliance LLC include:

- The Sarbanes-Oxley Compliance Professionals Association (SOXCPA), the largest Association of Sarbanes-Oxley professionals in the world. You may visit: https://www.sarbanes-oxley-association.com

- The Basel iii Compliance Professionals Association (BiiiCPA), the largest association of Basel iii Professionals in the world. You may visit: https://www.basel-iii-association.com

- The Solvency II Association, the largest association of Solvency II professionals in the world. You may visit: https://www.solvency-ii-association.com

- The International Association of Risk and Compliance Professionals (IARCP). You may visit: https://www.risk-compliance-association.com

The Certified Risk and Compliance Management Professional (CRCMP) program, from the IARCP, has become one of the most recognized certificates in risk management and compliance. There are CRCMPs in 57 countries. Companies and organizations around the world consider the CRCMP a preferred certificate.

You can find more about the demand for CRCMPs at: https://www.risk-compliance-association.com/CRCMP_Jobs_Careers.pdf


CRCMP careers


“Cyber Risk GmbH Training Programs” are training programs developed, updated and provided by Cyber Risk GmbH, and include:
a) In-House Instructor-Led Training programs,
b) Online Live Training programs,
c) Video-Recorded Training programs,
d) Distance Learning with Certificate of Completion programs.


“Cyber Risk GmbH websites” are all websites that belong to Cyber Risk GmbH, and include the following:


a. Sectors and Industries.

1. Cyber Risk GmbH

2. Social Engineering Training

3. Healthcare Cybersecurity

4. Airline Cybersecurity

5. Railway Cybersecurity

6. Maritime Cybersecurity

7. Oil Cybersecurity

8. Electricity Cybersecurity

9. Gas Cybersecurity

10. Hydrogen Cybersecurity

11. Transport Cybersecurity

12. Transport Cybersecurity Toolkit

13. Hotel Cybersecurity

14. Sanctions Risk

15. Travel Security


b. Understanding Cybersecurity.

1. What is Disinformation?

2. What is Steganography?

3. What is Cyberbiosecurity?

4. What is Synthetic Identity Fraud?

5. What is a Romance Scam?

6. What is Cyber Espionage?

7. What is Sexspionage?

8. What is the RESTRICT Act?


c. Understanding Cybersecurity in the European Union.

1. The NIS 2 Directive

2. The European Cyber Resilience Act

3. The Digital Operational Resilience Act (DORA)

4. The Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER)

5. The Digital Services Act (DSA)

6. The Digital Markets Act (DMA)

7. The European Health Data Space (EHDS)

8. The European Chips Act

9. The European Data Act

10. The European Data Governance Act (DGA)

11. The EU Cyber Solidarity Act

12. The Digital Networks Act (DNA)

13. The Artificial Intelligence Act

14. The Artificial Intelligence Liability Directive

15. The Framework for Artificial Intelligence Cybersecurity Practices (FAICP)

16. The European ePrivacy Regulation

17. The European Digital Identity Regulation

18. The European Media Freedom Act (EMFA)

19. The European Cyber Defence Policy

20. The Strategic Compass of the European Union

21. The EU Cyber Diplomacy Toolbox



2. Is there any discount available for the distance learning programs?

We do not offer a discount for your first program, as we want to keep the cost as low as possible. You have a $100 discount for your second and each additional program.

After you purchase the Critical Entities Resilience Directive Trained Professional (CERDTPro) program at $297, you can purchase:

a. The Digital Operational Resilience Act Trained Professional (DORATPro) program at $197. You can find more about the program at: https://www.digital-operational-resilience-act.com/Digital_Operational_Resilience_Act_Trained_Professional_(DORATPro).html.

b. The NIS 2 Directive Trained Professional (NIS2DTP) program at $197. You can find more about the program at: https://www.nis-2-directive.com/NIS_2_Directive_Trained_Professional_(NIS2DTP).html.

c. The Digital Services Act Trained Professional (DiSeActTPro) program at $197. You can find more about the program at: https://www.eu-digital-services-act.com/DiSeActTPro_Training.html.

d. The Digital Markets Act Trained Professional (DiMaActTPro) program at $197. You can find more about the program at: https://www.eu-digital-markets-act.com/DiMaActTPro_Training.html.

e. The Data Governance Act Trained Professional (DatGovActTP) program at $197. You can find more about the program at: https://www.european-data-governance-act.com/DatGovActTP_Training.html.



3. Are there any entry requirements or prerequisites required for enrolling in the training programs?

There are no entry requirements or prerequisites for enrollment. Our programs give the opportunity to individuals of all levels to learn, grow, and develop new skills without the need for prior qualifications or specific experience.



4. I want to learn more about the exam.

You can take the exam online from your home or office, in all countries.

It is an open book exam. Risk and compliance management is something you must understand and learn, not memorize. You must acquire knowledge and skills, not commit something to memory.

You will be given 90 minutes to complete a 35-question exam. You must score 70% or higher.

The exam contains only questions that have been clearly answered in the official presentations.

All exam questions are multiple-choice, composed of two parts:

a. A stem (a question asked, or an incomplete statement to be completed).

b. Four possible responses.

In multiple-choice questions, you must not look for a correct answer, you must look for the best answer. Cross out all the answers you know are incorrect, then focus on the remaining ones. Which is the best answer? With this approach, you save time, and you greatly increase the likelihood of selecting the correct answer.

TIME LIMIT - This exam has a 90-minute time limit. You must complete this exam within this time limit, otherwise the result will be marked as an unsuccessful attempt.

BACK BUTTON - When taking this exam you are NOT permitted to move backwards to review/change prior answers. Your browser back button will refresh the current page instead of moving backward.

RESTART/RESUME – You CANNOT stop and then resume the exam. If you stop taking this exam by closing your browser, your answers will be lost, and the result will be marked as an unsuccessful attempt.

SKIP - You CANNOT skip answering questions while taking this exam. You must answer all the questions in the order the questions are presented.

When you are ready to take the exam, you must follow the steps described at "Question h. I am ready for the exam. What must I do?", at:

https://www.nis-2-directive.com/Distance_Learning_Programs_Exam_Certificate_of_Completion.pdf



5. How comprehensive are the presentations? Are they just bullet points?

The presentations are not bullet points. They are effective and appropriate to study online or offline.



6. Do I need to buy books to pass the exam?

No. If you study the presentations, you can pass the exam. All the exam questions are clearly answered in the presentations. If you fail the first time, you must study more. Print the presentations and use Post-it to attach notes, to know where to find the answer to a question.



7. Is it an open book exam? Why?

Yes, it is an open book exam. Risk and compliance management is something you must understand and learn, not memorize. You must acquire knowledge and skills, not commit something to memory.



8. Do I have to take the exam soon after receiving the presentations?

No. You can take the exam any time. Your account never expires. You have lifetime access to the training program. If there are any updates to the training material and you have not passed the exam, you will receive the updated program free of charge.



9. Do I have to spend more money in the future keep my certificate of completion valid?

No. Your certificate of completion will remain valid, without the need to spend money or to take another exam in the future.



10. Ok, the certificate of completion never expires, but things change.

Recertification would be a great recurring revenue stream for Cyber Risk GmbH, but it would also be a recurring expense for our clients. We resisted the temptation to "introduce multiple recurring revenue streams to keep business flowing", as we were consulted. No recertification is needed for our programs.

Things change, and this is the reason you need to visit the "Reading Room" of Cyber Risk GmbH every month, and read the monthly newsletter with updates, alerts, and opportunities, to stay current. You may visit:

https://www.cyber-risk-gmbh.com/Reading_Room.html



11. Which is your refund policy?

Cyber Risk GmbH has a very clear refund policy: You have the option to ask for a full refund up to 60 days after the payment. If you do not want one of our programs for any reason, all you must do is to send us an email, and we will refund the payment after one business day, no questions asked.



12. I want to receive a printed certificate. Can you send me one?

Unfortunately this is not possible. You will receive your certificate via email in Adobe Acrobat format (pdf), with a scannable QR code for verification, 7 business days after you pass the exam. A business day refers to any day in which normal business operations are conducted (in our case Monday through Friday), excluding weekends and public holidays.

The association will develop a dedicated web page for each certified professional (https://www.cyber-risk-gmbh.com/Your_Name.html). In your dedicated web page we will add your full name, all the certificates you have received from the association, and the pictures of your certificates.

When third parties scan the QR code on your certificate, they will visit your dedicated web page, and they will be able to verify that you are a certified professional, and your certificates are valid and legitimate.

Professional certificates are some of the most frequently falsified documents. Employers and third parties need an easy, effective, and efficient way to check the authenticity of each certificate. QR code verification is a good response to this demand.

You can print your certificate that you will receive in Adobe Acrobat format. With the scannable QR code, all third parties can verify the authenticity of each certificate in a matter of seconds.



13. Why should I choose your training programs?

I. There are many new Directives and Regulations in the EU, and our target audience is overwhelmed and has little time to spare. Cyber Risk GmbH has developed training programs that can assist them in understanding the new requirements, and in providing evidence that they are qualified, as they must pass an exam to receive their certificate of completion.

II. Our training programs are flexible and convenient. Learners can access the course material and take the exam at any time and from any location. This is especially important for those with busy schedules.

III. The all-inclusive cost of our programs is very low. There is no additional cost for each program, now or in the future, for any reason.

IV. If you purchase a second program, you have a $100 discount. The all-inclusive cost for your second (and each additional) program is $197.

V. There are 3 exam attempts per year that are included in the cost of each program, so you do not have to spend money again if you fail.

VI. No recertification is required. Your certificates of completion never expire.

VII. If you purchase the CERDTPro program now, you can receive all the updated and amended CERDTPro programs at no cost until January 31, 2028.

Every time we have important developments that affect regulatory compliance with the Critical Entities Resilience Directive (CER), we will update and amend this training program, especially when we have important:

- Joint final draft technical standards, from the European Supervisory Authorities (ESAs) – the European Banking Authority (EBA), the European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority (EIOPA), the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA).

- Regulatory Technical Standards (RTS),

- Implementing Technical Standards (ITS),

- Delegated Acts, that supplement or amend non‑essential parts of EU legislative acts, and

- Implementing Acts, that ensure that EU laws are applied uniformly.

VIII. The marketplace is clearly demanding qualified professionals in risk and compliance management. Certified professionals enjoy industry recognition and have more and better job opportunities.

IX. Firms and organizations hire and promote fit and proper professionals who can provide evidence that they are qualified. Employers need assurance that managers and employees have the knowledge and skills needed to mitigate risks and accept responsibility. Supervisors and auditors ask for independent evidence that the process owners are qualified, and that the controls can operate as designed, because the persons responsible for these controls have the necessary knowledge and experience.

X. Professionals that gain more skills and qualifications often become eligible for higher-paying roles. Investing in training can have a direct positive impact on a manager's or employee's earning potential.